National ITS Architecture definitions of Subsystems are detailed below.
Archived Data Management
The Archived Data Management Subsystem collects, archives, manages, and distributes data generated from ITS sources for use in transportation administration, policy evaluation, safety, planning, performance monitoring, program assessment, operations, and research applications. The data received is formatted and tagged with attributes that define the data source, conditions under which it was collected, data transformations, and other information (i.e., meta data) necessary to interpret the data. The subsystem can fuse ITS generated data with data from non-ITS sources and other archives to generate information products utilizing data from multiple functional areas, modes, and jurisdictions. The subsystem prepares data products that can serve as inputs to federal, state, and local data reporting systems. This subsystem may be implemented in many different ways. It may reside within an operational center and provide focused access to a particular agency’s data archives. Alternatively, it may operate as a distinct center that collects data from multiple agencies and sources and provides a general data warehouse service for a region.
Commercial Vehicle Administration
The Commercial Vehicle Administration Subsystem will operate at one or more fixed locations within a region. This subsystem performs administrative functions supporting credentials, tax, and safety regulations. It issues credentials, collects fees and taxes, and supports enforcement of credential requirements. This subsystem communicates with the Fleet Management Subsystems associated with the motor carriers to process credentials applications and collect fuel taxes, weight/distance taxes, and other taxes and fees associated with commercial vehicle operations. The subsystem also receives applications for, and issues special Oversize/Overweight and HAZMAT permits in coordination with other cognizant authorities. The subsystem coordinates with other Commercial Vehicle Administration Subsystems (in other states/regions) to support nationwide access to credentials and safety information for administration and enforcement functions. This subsystem supports communications with Commercial Vehicle Check Subsystems operating at the roadside to enable credential checking and safety information collection. The collected safety information is processed, stored, and made available to qualified Stakeholders to identify carriers and drivers that operate unsafely.
Commercial Vehicle Check
The Commercial Vehicle Check Subsystem supports automated vehicle identification at mainline speeds for credential checking, roadside safety inspections, and weigh-in-motion using two-way data exchange. These capabilities include providing warnings to the commercial vehicle drivers, their fleet managers, and proper authorities of any safety problems that have been identified, accessing and examining historical safety data, and automatically deciding whether to allow the vehicle to pass or require it to stop with operator manual override. The Commercial Vehicle Check Subsystem also provides supplemental inspection services to current capabilities by supporting expedited brake inspections, the use of operator hand-held devices, on-board safety database access, and the enrollment of vehicles and carriers in the electronic clearance program.
This subsystem resides in a commercial vehicle and provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support safe and efficient commercial vehicle operations. The Commercial Vehicle Subsystem provides two-way communications between the commercial vehicle drivers, their fleet managers, attached freight equipment, and roadside officials, and provides HAZMAT response teams with timely and accurate cargo contents information after a vehicle incident. This subsystem provides the capability to collect and process vehicle, cargo information from the attached freight equipment, and driver safety data and status and alert the driver whenever there is a potential safety or security problem. Basic identification, security and safety status data are supplied to inspection facilities at mainline speeds. In addition, the subsystem will automatically collect and record mileage, fuel usage, and border crossings.
The Emergency Management Subsystem represents public safety, emergency management, and other allied agency systems that support incident management, disaster response and evacuation, security monitoring, and other security and public safety-oriented ITS applications. The subsystem includes the functions associated with fixed and mobile public safety communications centers including public safety call taker and dispatch centers operated by police (including transit police), fire, and emergency medical services. It includes the functions associated with Emergency Operations Centers that are activated at local, regional, state, and federal levels for emergencies and the portable and transportable systems that support Incident Command System operations at an incident. This subsystem also represents other allied systems including centers associated with towing and recovery, freeway service patrols, HAZMAT response teams, and mayday service providers.
The subsystem manages sensor and surveillance equipment used to enhance transportation security of the roadway infrastructure (including bridges, tunnels, interchanges, and other key roadway segments) and the public transportation system (including transit vehicles, public areas such as transit stops and stations, facilities such as transit yards, and transit infrastructure such as rail, bridges, tunnels, or bus guideways). The subsystem provides security/surveillance services to improve traveler security in public areas not a part of the public transportation system.
This subsystem monitors alerts, advisories, and other threat information and prepares for and responds to identified emergencies. It interfaces with other Emergency Management Subsystems to support coordinated emergency response involving multiple agencies. The subsystem stores, coordinates, and utilizes emergency response and evacuation plans to facilitate this coordinated response. As the response progresses, situation information including damage assessments, response status, evacuation information, and resource information are shared to keep all allied agencies appraised of the response. Interface with the Transit Management Subsystem allows coordinated use of transit vehicles to facilitate response to major emergencies and to support evacuation efforts. The Emergency Management Subsystem also provides a focal point for coordination of the emergency and evacuation information that is provided to the traveling public, including wide-area alerts when immediate public notification is warranted.
The subsystem tracks and manages emergency vehicle fleets using real-time road network status and routing information from the other center subsystems to aide in selecting the emergency vehicle(s) and routes that will provide the timeliest response. Interface with the Traffic Management Subsystem allows strategic coordination in tailoring traffic control to support emergency vehicle ingress and egress, implementation of special traffic restrictions and closures, evacuation traffic control plans, and other special strategies that adapt the transportation system to better meet the unique demands of an emergency.
This subsystem resides in an emergency vehicle and provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support safe and efficient incident response. The subsystem represents a range of vehicles including those operated by police, fire, and emergency medical services. In addition, this subsystem represents other incident response vehicles including towing and recovery vehicles and freeway service patrols. The Emergency Vehicle Subsystem includes two-way communications to support coordinated response to emergencies in accordance with an associated Emergency Management Subsystem. Emergency vehicles are equipped with automated vehicle location capability for monitoring by vehicle tracking and fleet management functions in the Emergency Management Subsystem. Using these capabilities, the appropriate emergency vehicle to respond to each emergency is determined. Route guidance capabilities within the vehicle enable safe and efficient routing to the emergency. In addition, the emergency vehicle may be equipped to support signal preemption through communications with the Roadway Subsystem.
This subsystem operates at a fixed location and may co-reside with the Traffic Management Subsystem or may operate in its own distinct location depending on regional preferences and priorities. This subsystem provides the capabilities for air quality managers to monitor and manage air quality. These capabilities include collecting emissions data from distributed emissions sensors within the roadway subsystem. These sensors monitor general air quality within each sector of the area and also monitor the emissions of individual vehicles on the roadway. The sector emissions measures are collected, processed, and used to identify sectors exceeding safe pollution levels. This information is provided to traffic management to implement strategies intended to reduce emissions in and around the problem areas. Emissions data associated with individual vehicles, supplied by the Roadway Subsystem, is also processed and monitored to identify vehicles that exceed standards. This subsystem provides any functions necessary to inform the violators and otherwise ensure timely compliance with emissions standards.
Fleet and Freight Management
The Fleet and Freight Management Subsystem provides the capability for commercial drivers and fleet or freight managers to receive real-time routing information and access databases containing vehicle and/or freight equipment locations as well as carrier, vehicle, freight equipment and driver information. In addition, the capability to purchase credentials electronically shall also be provided, with automated and efficient connections to financial institutions and regulatory agencies, along with post-trip automated mileage and fuel usage reporting. The Fleet and Freight Management Subsystem also provides the capability for fleet managers to monitor the safety and security of their commercial vehicle drivers and fleet. The subsystem also supports application for HAZMATcredentials and makes information about HAZMATcargo available to agencies as required. Within this subsystem lies all the functionality associated with subsystems and components necessary to enroll and participate in international goods movement programs aimed at enhancing trade and transportation safety and security.
Information Service Provider
This subsystem collects, processes, stores, and disseminates transportation information to system operators and the traveling public. The subsystem can play several different roles in an integrated ITS. In one role, the ISP provides a data collection, fusing, and repackaging function, collecting information from transportation system operators and redistributing this information to other system operators in the region and other ISPs. In this information redistribution role, the ISP provides a bridge between the various transportation systems that produce the information and the other ISPs and their subscribers that use the information. The second role of an ISP is focused on delivery of traveler information to subscribers and the public at large. Information provided includes basic advisories, traffic and road conditions, transit schedule information, yellow pages information, ridematching information, and parking information. The subsystem also provides the capability to provide specific directions to travelers by receiving origin and destination requests from travelers, generating route plans, and returning the calculated plans to the users. In addition to general route planning for travelers, the ISP also supports specialized route planning for vehicle fleets. In this third role, the ISP function may be dedicated to, or even embedded within, the dispatch system. Reservation services are also provided in advanced implementations. The information is provided to the traveler through the Personal Information Access Subsystem, Remote Traveler Support Subsystem, and the Vehicle Subsystem through available communications links. Both basic one-way (broadcast) and personalized two-way information provision are supported. The ISP is most commonly implemented as an Internet website, but it represents any traveler information distribution service including systems that broadcast digital transportation data (e.g., satellite radio networks) and systems that support distribution through Field-Vehicle Communications networks. The ISP accomplishes these roles using constantly evolving technologies like the Internet (World Wide Web pages), direct broadcast communications (email alerts, pagers, satellite radio network data broadcasts), communications through Field-Vehicle Communications networks, etc.
Maintenance and Construction Management
The Maintenance and Construction Management Subsystem monitors and manages roadway infrastructure construction and maintenance activities. Representing both public agencies and private contractors that provide these functions, this subsystem manages fleets of maintenance, construction, or special service vehicles (e.g., snow and ice control equipment). The subsystem receives a wide range of status information from these vehicles and performs vehicle dispatch, routing, and resource management for the vehicle fleets and associated equipment. The subsystem participates in incident response by deploying maintenance and construction resources to an incident scene, in coordination with other center subsystems. The subsystem manages equipment at the roadside, including environmental sensors and automated systems that monitor and mitigate adverse road and surface weather conditions. The subsystem manages the repair and maintenance of both non-ITS and ITS equipment including the traffic controllers, detectors, dynamic message signs, signals, and other equipment associated with the roadway infrastructure. Additional interfaces to weather information providers (the weather service and surface transportation weather service providers) provide current and forecast weather information that can be fused with other data sources and used to support advanced decision support systems that increase the efficiency and effectiveness of maintenance and construction operations.
The subsystem remotely monitors and manages ITS capabilities in work zones, gathering, storing, and disseminating work zone information to other systems. It manages traffic in the vicinity of the work zone and advises drivers of work zone status (either directly at the roadside or through an interface with the Information Service Provider or Traffic Management subsystems.) It schedules and manages the location and usage of maintenance assets (such as portable dynamic message signs).
Construction and maintenance activities are tracked and coordinated with other systems, improving the quality and accuracy of information available regarding closures and other roadway construction and maintenance activities.
Maintenance and Construction Vehicle
This subsystem resides in a maintenance, construction, or other specialized service vehicle or equipment and provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support highway maintenance and construction. All types of maintenance and construction vehicles are covered, including heavy equipment and supervisory vehicles. The subsystem provides two-way communications between drivers/operators and dispatchers and maintains and communicates current location and status information. A wide range of operational status is monitored, measured, and made available, depending on the specific type of vehicle or equipment. For example, for a snow plow, the information would include whether the plow is up or down and material usage information. The subsystem may also contain capabilities to monitor vehicle systems to support maintenance of the vehicle itself and other sensors that monitor environmental conditions including the road condition and surface weather information. This subsystem can represent a diverse set of mobile environmental sensing platforms, including wheeled vehicles and any other vehicle that collects and reports environmental information.
The Parking Management Subsystem provides electronic monitoring and management of parking facilities. It supports a dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) link to the Vehicle Subsystem that allows electronic collection of parking fees. It also includes the instrumentation, signs, and other infrastructure that monitors parking lot usage and provides local information about parking availability and other general parking information. This portion of the subsystem functionality must be located in the parking facility where it can monitor, classify, and share information with customers and their vehicles. The subsystem also interfaces with the financial infrastructure and broadly disseminates parking information to other operational centers in the region. Note that the latter functionality may be located in a back office, remote from the parking facility.
Personal Information Access
This subsystem provides the capability for travelers to receive formatted traffic advisories from their homes, place of work, major trip generation sites, personal portable devices, over multiple types of electronic media. These capabilities also provide basic routing information and allow users to select those transportation modes that allow them to avoid congestion, or more advanced capabilities to allow users to specify those transportation parameters that are unique to their individual needs and receive travel information. This subsystem provides travelers with the capability to receive route planning from the infrastructure at fixed locations such as in their homes, their place of work, and at mobile locations using personal portable devices and vehicle-based devices. In addition to end user devices, this subsystem may also represent a device that is used by a merchant or other service provider to receive traveler information and relay important information to their customers. This subsystem also provides the capability to initiate a distress signal and cancel a prior-issued manual request for help.
Remote Traveler Support
This subsystem provides access to traveler information at transit stations, transit stops, other fixed sites along travel routes (e.g., rest stops, merchant locations), and major trip generation locations such as special event centers, hotels, office complexes, amusement parks, and theaters. Traveler information access points include kiosks and informational displays supporting varied levels of interaction and information access. At transit stops, simple displays providing schedule information and imminent arrival signals can be provided. This basic information may be extended to include multi-modal information including traffic conditions and transit schedules along with yellow pages information to support mode and route selection at major trip generation sites. Personalized route planning and route guidance information can also be provided based on criteria supplied by the traveler. The subsystem also supports electronic payment of transit fares.
In addition to the traveler information provisions, this subsystem also supports security and safety monitoring of public areas. This monitoring includes traveler activated silent alarms, as well as surveillance and sensor equipment. The surveillance equipment includes video (e.g., CCTV cameras) and/or audio systems. The sensor equipment includes threat sensors (e.g., chemical agent, toxic industrial chemical, biological, explosives, and radiological sensors) and object detection sensors (e.g., metal detectors).
This subsystem includes the equipment distributed on and along the roadway that monitors and controls traffic and monitors and manages the roadway itself. Equipment includes traffic detectors, environmental sensors, traffic signals, highway advisory radios, dynamic message signs, CCTV cameras and video image processing systems, grade crossing warning systems, and freeway ramp metering systems. HOV lane management, reversible lane management functions, and barrier systems that control access to transportation infrastructure such as roadways, bridges and tunnels are also supported. This subsystem also provides the capability for environmental monitoring including sensors that measure road conditions, surface weather, and vehicle emissions. In adverse conditions, automated systems can be used to apply anti-icing materials, disperse fog, etc. Work zone systems including work zone surveillance, traffic control, driver warning, and work crew safety systems are also included. To enhance security, safeguard systems such as blast shields, exhaust systems and other automated and remotely controlled systems to protect transportation infrastructure is also provided. In advanced implementations, this subsystem supports automated vehicle safety systems by safely controlling access to and egress from an Automated Highway System through monitoring of, and communications with, AHS vehicles. Intersection collision avoidance functions are provided by determining the probability of a collision in the intersection and sending appropriate warnings and/or control actions to the approaching vehicles.
This subsystem includes surveillance and sensor equipment used to provide enhanced security and safety for transportation facilities or infrastructure. The equipment represented by this subsystem is located in non-public areas of transportation facilities (e.g., maintenance and transit yards) or located on or near non-roadway parts of the transportation infrastructure (e.g., transit railway and guideways). This subsystem also includes surveillance and sensor equipment located on or near major roadway features such as bridges, tunnels, and interchanges, when the equipment’s primary function is one of security and safety. If the primary function of the equipment is traffic surveillance or incident detection, then the surveillance or sensors would be covered as part of the Roadway Subsystem. Similarly, the surveillance and sensor equipment for public areas of transportation facilities is covered in the Remote Traveler Support Subsystem. The surveillance equipment includes video (e.g., CCTV cameras) and/or audio systems. The sensor equipment includes threat sensors (e.g., chemical agent, toxic industrial chemical, biological, explosives, and radiological sensors), object detection (e.g., metal detectors), intrusion or motion detection, and infrastructure integrity monitoring (e.g., rail track continuity checking or bridge structural integrity monitoring). Limited processing of collected sensor and surveillance data is also included in this subsystem to support threat detection and classification.
The Toll Administration Subsystem provides general payment administration capabilities and supports the electronic transfer of authenticated funds from the customer to the transportation system operator. This subsystem supports traveler enrollment and collection of both pre-payment and post-payment transportation fees in coordination with the existing, and evolving financial infrastructure supporting electronic payment transactions. The system may establish and administer escrow accounts depending on the clearinghouse scheme and the type of payments involved. This subsystem posts a transaction to the customer account and generates a bill (for post-payment accounts), debits an escrow account, or interfaces to the financial infrastructure to debit a customer designated account. It supports communications with the Toll Collection Subsystem to support fee collection operations. The subsystem also sets and administers the pricing structures and includes the capability to implement road pricing policies in coordination with the Traffic Management Subsystem. The electronic financial transactions in which this subsystem is an intermediary between the customer and the financial infrastructure shall be cryptographically protected and authenticated to preserve privacy and ensure authenticity and auditability.
The Toll Collection Subsystem provides the capability for vehicle operators to pay tolls without stopping their vehicles using locally determined pricing structures and includes the capability to implement various variable road pricing policies. Each transaction is accompanied by feedback to the customer indicating the general status of the customer account. A record of the transactions is provided to the Toll Administration Subsystem for reconciliation and so that the customer can periodically receive a detailed record of the transactions.
The Traffic Management Subsystem monitors and controls traffic and the road network. It represents centers that manage a broad range of transportation facilities including freeway systems, rural and suburban highway systems, and urban and suburban traffic control systems. This subsystem communicates with the Roadway Subsystem to monitor and manage traffic flow and monitor the condition of the roadway, surrounding environmental conditions, and field equipment status. This subsystem coordinates with the Maintenance and Construction Management Subsystem to maintain the road network and coordinate and adapt to maintenance activities, closures, and detours. Incidents are detected, verified, and incident information is provided to allied agencies, drivers (through Roadway Subsystem highway advisory radio and dynamic message signs), and information service providers. This subsystem also manages traffic and transportation resources to support allied agencies in responding to, and recovering from, incidents ranging from minor traffic incidents through major disasters. When required, special traffic management strategies are implemented to support evacuation and reentry. The Traffic Management Subsystem supports HOV lane management and coordination, road pricing, and other demand management policies that can alleviate congestion and influence mode selection. It also manages reversible lane facilities and barrier and safeguard systems that control access to transportation infrastructure. The subsystem communicates with other Traffic Management Subsystems to coordinate traffic information and control strategies in neighboring jurisdictions. It also coordinates with rail operations to support safer and more efficient highway traffic management at highway-rail intersections. Finally, the Traffic Management Subsystem provides the capabilities to exercise control over those devices utilized for automated highway system (AHS) traffic and vehicle control.
The Transit Management Subsystem manages transit vehicle fleets and coordinates with other modes and transportation services. It provides operations, maintenance, customer information, planning, and management functions for the transit property. It spans distinct central dispatch and garage management systems and supports the spectrum of fixed route, flexible route, paratransit services, transit rail, and bus rapid transit (BRT) service. The subsystem’s interfaces allow for communication between transit departments and with other operating entities such as emergency response services and traffic management systems. This subsystem receives special event and real-time incident data from the traffic management subsystem. It provides current transit operations data to other center subsystems. It interfaces with the Emergency Management Subsystem to allow coordinated use of transit vehicles to facilitate response to major emergencies or evacuations. The Transit Management Subsystem collects and stores accurate ridership levels and implements corresponding fare structures. It collects operational and maintenance data from transit vehicles, manages vehicle service histories, and assigns vehicle operators and maintenance personnel to vehicles and routes. The Transit Management Subsystem also provides the capability for automated planning and scheduling of public transit operations. It furnishes travelers with real-time travel information, continuously updated schedules, schedule adherence information, transfer options, and transit routes and fares. In addition, the subsystem supports transit security features. This includes monitoring silent alarms, both passenger and operator initiated, on-board transit vehicles. It also includes the capability to support transit vehicle operator authentication and the capability to remotely disable a transit vehicle. The subsystem includes the capability to monitor for a transit vehicle being off the assigned route. The subsystem also includes the capability to alert operators and police to potential incidents identified by these security features.
This subsystem resides in a transit vehicle and provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support safe and efficient movement of passengers. The types of transit vehicles containing this subsystem include buses, paratransit vehicles, light rail vehicles, other vehicles designed to carry passengers, and supervisory vehicles. The subsystem collects accurate ridership levels and supports electronic fare collection. The subsystem supports a traffic signal prioritization function that communicates with the roadside subsystem to improve on-schedule performance. Automated vehicle location functions enhance the information available to the Transit Management Subsystem enabling more efficient operations. On-board sensors support transit vehicle maintenance. The subsystem supports on-board security and safety monitoring. This monitoring includes transit user or vehicle operator activated alarms (silent or audible), as well as surveillance and sensor equipment. The surveillance equipment includes video (e.g., CCTV cameras), audio systems and/or event recorder systems. The sensor equipment includes threat sensors (e.g., chemical agent, toxic industrial chemical, biological, explosives, and radiological sensors) and object detection sensors (e.g., metal detectors). In addition, the subsystem supports vehicle operator authentication prior to operation of the vehicle and remote vehicle disabling. The subsystem also furnishes travelers with real-time travel information, continuously updated schedules, transfer options, routes, and fares.
This subsystem provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support efficient, safe, and convenient travel. These functions reside in general vehicles including personal automobiles, commercial vehicles, emergency vehicles, transit vehicles, or other vehicle types. Information services provide the driver with current travel conditions and the availability of services along the route and at the destination. Both one-way and two-way communications options support a spectrum of information services from low-cost broadcast services to advanced, pay for use personalized information services. Route guidance capabilities assist in formulation of an optimal route and step by step guidance along the travel route. Advanced sensors, processors, enhanced driver interfaces, and actuators complement the driver information services so that, in addition to making informed mode and route selections, the driver travels these routes in a safer and more consistent manner. Initial collision avoidance functions provide “vigilant co-pilot” driver warning capabilities. More advanced functions assume limited control of the vehicle to maintain safe headway. Ultimately, this subsystem supports completely automated vehicle operation through advanced communications with other vehicles in the vicinity and in coordination with supporting infrastructure subsystems. Pre-crash safety systems are deployed and emergency notification messages are issued when unavoidable collisions do occur.